por Israel Kirzner

[ The Meaning of Market Process – Tradução de Giácomo de Pellegrini ]

Prefácio

Esta coleção de ensaios é oferecida como uma contribuição para a história moderna das doutrinas econômicas e para o renascimento contemporâneo do interesse na Escola Austríaca de Economia. Como o pensamento econômico dominante durante a maior parte deste século se afastou da linha de investigação iniciada pelos fundadores da Escola Austríaca, a redescoberta contemporânea dos insights dessa escola inspirou o reexame dos insights doutrinários pioneiros da tradição austríaca e sua sobrevivência, no “submundo” das ideias econômicas do século XX, até seu ressurgimento em nosso próprio tempo. Não por acaso, essas explorações dogmengeschichtliche (história dogmática) levaram a uma compreensão aprofundada da natureza do processo de mercado austríaco e do papel das ideias subjetivistas na explicação desse processo. Esse entendimento aprofundado informou nossa reafirmação da perspectiva austríaca básica, de um século atrás, sobre o processo de mercado, encarando-o como uma sequência sistemática e coordenada de revisões de planos. Essa reafirmação foi solicitada por tentativas, feitas em certas contribuições radicalmente subjetivistas, de declarar o subjetivismo austríaco minuciosamente e fundamentalmente inconsistente com a apreciação das tendências de equilíbrio do mercado. O autor acredita firmemente que essas tentativas, embora feitas no decorrer de valiosos esforços para promover a abordagem austríaca, ainda assim são profundamente infelizes e equivocadas. De fato, insistiria que o aprofundamento consistente do entendimento austríaco deve nos levar a não negar o impulso central da economia mainstream (isto é, seu entendimento dos resultados do mercado tende a refletir as preferências relativas dos consumidores à luz das restrições de recursos), mas argumentar que essas conclusões da economia dominante só podem ser coerentemente defendidas através da introdução das ideias subjetivistas da tradição austríaca. O autor espera que esses ensaios possam contribuir para essa maneira de ver as coisas.

Grande parte do trabalho que levou a esses ensaios foi possível graças à generosidade da Fundação Sarah Scaife e da Fundação John M. Olin. A essas duas fundações (e a James Piereson e, principalmente, a Richard M. Larry), o autor é profundamente grato. Vários desses ensaios foram discutidos, durante um período de anos, no colóquio semanal de economia austríaca da Universidade de Nova York. O autor aprecia profundamente o estímulo e a assistência oferecida pelos membros do colóquio, e menciona particularmente o falecido Ludwig M. Lachmann, Mario J. Rizzo, Lawrence J. White, Peter J. Boettke, Stephan Boehm, Sanford Ikeda e Esteban Thomsen. Evidentemente, nenhum deles é responsável pelas deficiências desses ensaios.

Sumário

Parte I – A abordagem do processo de mercado

Capítulo 1: Teoria do processo de mercado: em defesa do meio-termo austríaco

Capítulo 2: O significado do processo de mercado

Parte II – O surgimento da visão austríaca

Capítulo 3: A Escola Austríaca de Economia

Capítulo 4: Carl Menger e a tradição subjetivista na economia

Capítulo 5: Menger, Liberalismo Clássico e a Escola Austríaca de Economia

Capítulo 6: O debate sobre o cálculo econômico: lições para os austríacos

Capítulo 7: Ludwig von Mises e Friedrich von Hayek: A moderna extensão do subjetivismo austríaco

Parte III – Algumas novas explorações da abordagem austríaca

Capítulo 8: Preços, a comunicação do conhecimento e o processo de descoberta

Capítulo 9: Planejamento econômico e o problema do conhecimento

Capítulo 10: Problemas do conhecimento e suas soluções: algumas distinções relevantes

Capítulo 11: Economia do bem-estar social: uma perspectiva austríaca moderna

Parte IV – Surgimento de algumas controvérsias relativas à abordagem austríaca

Capítulo 12: Auto-interesse e a nova crise econômica: uma nova oportunidade no debate perene?

Capítulo 13: Descoberta, propriedade privada e a teoria da justiça na sociedade capitalista

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